English - Conjunctions

1 - About

Conjunctions, as their name implies, are words that join:

They also indicate the relationship between those words.

The most important strategies as you start to write longer sentences is to make those relationships between the two sentences.

3 - Category

The four different types of conjunction are:

Type Join Relationship
Coordinating words or word groups logical
Correlative words or word groups logical
Adverbial sentences, or phrases, independent clauses logical
Subordinate sentences, or phrases subordinate

3.1 - Coordinating

Coordinating conjunctions indicate the logical Relationship between sentences. They are used to join words phrases and clauses (See compound sentence) They are extremely versatile. They are easily remembered with the acronym FAN BOYS.

Coordinating Conjunction Relationship
F for reason
A and addition
N nor not another option
B but contrast
O or another option
Y yet contrasting addition
S so result

Example:

  • Join two verbs: Juan enjoys dancing and snowboarding.
  • Join two sentences: Juan enjoys dancing at the local club and snowboarding at Big Bear mountain
  • join clauses: Juan enjoys dancing, and he enjoys snowboarding.

3.2 - Correlative

correlative conjunctions work in pairs. So these include phrases, and constructions that will start out,

  • not only … but also,
  • neither … nor,
  • either … or,
  • whether … or,
  • both … and.

The most common one is the not only … but also.

Example:

  • I want you either to clean your room or to wash the dog.
  • I want you neither to clean your room nor wash the dog.

3.3 - Adverbial

Adverbial conjunctions are also known as transition.

Unlike coordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions that link words and word groups, adverbial conjunctions join independent clauses.

If your paragraph lacks transitions, use them to help you create a smooth, logical flow of ideas in your paragraph. Transitions not only provide a smooth shift from one idea to the next, but they will also create logical relationships within your topic. Each of these words or phrases will help you to generate more information and supporting details. In addition, using these words will make your paragraph easier to read.

Adverbial conjunctions tell the reader the relationship between the two main clauses.

Adverbial conjunctions are going to create a logical relationship between two sentences, or phrases. A good way to remember a nice list of these is remember the acronym, HOT SHOT CAT

H However S Similarly C Consequently
O Otherwise H Hence A Also
T Therefore O On the other hand T Then
T Thus

There are many of these adverbial conjunctions:

  • in addition,
  • moreover,
  • in contrast,
  • in fact,
  • accordingly.

The list goes on and on.

Below are common adverbial conjunctions organized by the relationship they specify.

Addition Emphasis Comparison or Contrast Cause or Effect Time/Sequence Example
in addition in fact however as a result finally for example
furthermore indeed nevertheless consequently meanwhile in this case
moreover surprisingly nonetheless hence next such as
further in any case otherwise therefore first, second, third, etc notably
lastly certainly in contrast thus then in particular
as a matter of fact in comparison at this point
on the other hand
whereas
similarly

Example:

  • I want to go to the movies, however, I need to write my English paper.

3.4 - Subordinate

Subordinate conjunctions are a word or group of words that introduces a subordinate, dependent clause. See also complex sentence

Whereas adverbial conjunctions are going to create a logical relationship between two sentences, or phrases, Subordinate conjunctions actually change and subordinate one type of a sentence to another one.

Subordinate conjunctions are fairly simple words.

Subordination just means that it reduces its position in relationship. You have one sentence that's more important, or one group of words, is more important than another group of words.

Below are common subordinating conjunctions organized by the relationship they specify:

Cause or
Effect
Concession Condition Comparison
or Contrast
Purpose Space or Time
as though if while in order that before
because although since as so that since
since even though unless rather than once
even if when after
whenever while
when
until
whereas

Example:

  • although I want to go to the movies, I need to write my English paper.
  • even though I want to go to the movies, I need to write my English paper.

4 - Reference

natural_language/english/conjunction.txt · Last modified: 2017/09/13 21:21 by gerardnico