# Linear Algebra - (Direct Sum | Union) of vector spaces

### Table of Contents

## 1 - About

Let U and V be two vector spaces consisting of D-vectors over a field F.

Definition: If U and V share only the zero vector then we define the direct sum of U and V to be the set: <MATH> \{u + v : u \in U, v \in V\} </MATH> written: <MATH> U \oplus V </MATH> That is, <math>U \oplus V</math> is the set of all sums of a vector in U and a vector in V.

## 2 - Articles Related

## 3 - Computation

In Python, [u+v for u in U for v in V]

## 4 - Properties

- <math>U \oplus V</math> is a vector space
- The union of a set of generators of U, and a set of generators of V is a set of generators for <math>U \oplus V</math>
- Union of a basis of U and a basis of V is a basis of <math>U \oplus V</math> because the union is linearly independent

## 5 - Corollary

### 5.1 - Dimension

<math>dim U + dimV = dimU \oplus V</math>

## 6 - Example

### 6.1 - over Gf2

Vectors over GF(2):

Let U = Span {1000, 0100} and let V = Span {0010}.

- Every non-zero vector in U has a one in the first or second position (or both) and nowhere else.
- Every non-zero vector in V has a one in the third position and nowhere else. Therefore the only vector in both U and V is the zero vector.

Therefore <math>U \oplus V</math> is defined.

<MATH> \begin{eqnarray*} U \oplus V & = \{& 0000+0000,& 1000+0000, &0100+0000, &1100+0000, &0000+0010, &1000+0010, &0100+0010, &1100+0010\} \\ & = \{&0000,& 1000,& 0100, &1100, &0010, &1010, &0110, &1110\} \end{eqnarray*} </MATH>

### 6.2 - over <math>\mathbb{R}</math>

- Let U = Span {[4,−1, 1]}.
- Let V = Span {[0, 1, 1]}.

The only intersection is at the origin, so <math>U \oplus V</math> is defined.

<math>U \oplus V</math> is the set of vectors u + v where <math>u \in U \text{ and } v \in V</math>

This is just Span {[4,−1, 1], [0, 1, 1]}, Plane containing the two lines