# Oracle Database - Statistics - Density (Column Selectivity)

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### Table of Contents

## 1 - About

Density is a column statistics that store a decimal number between 0 and 1 that measures the selectivity of a column. Values close to 1 indicate that the column is

Density provides **selectivity** estimates for:

- equi-join predicates (e.g. A.COL1 = B.COL1)
- and equality predicates (e.g. COL1 = 5).

The more selective a column, the less rows are likely to be returned by a query referencing this column in its predicate list.

The density is expressed as a decimal number between 0 and 1.

- Values close to 1 indicate that this column is unselective
- Values close to 0 indicate that this column is highly selective

## 2 - Articles Related

## 3 - Calculation

### 3.1 - Without Histogram

Without histogram: <MATH> \text{Density} = \frac{1}{\text{Number of distinct NON null values}} </MATH>

### 3.2 - With Histogram

Since Oracle 7.3, histogram are used in the calculation.

The calculation i splits by the type of popularity:

- A non-popular value is one that does not span multiple bucket end points.
- A popular value is one that spans multiple end points.

#### 3.2.1 - Non-Popular value

For non-popular values the density is calculated as the number of non-popular values divided by the total number of values. Formula: <MATH> \text{Density} = \frac{\text{Number of non-popular values}}{\text{Total number of values}} </MATH>

#### 3.2.2 - Popular Value

Popular values calculate the selectivity of a particular column values by using histograms.

The Selectivity (Density ?) for popular values is calculated as: <MATH> \text{Selectivity} = \frac{\text{Number of end points spanned by this value}}{\text{Total number of end points}} </MATH>